Citizen’s complaint to Minister for Planning Rob Stokes about failures in Westconnex planning process

Introduction

The People’s M4 EIS website has been quiet since submissions closed. 17 submissions were received from Government agencies and Local Councils. Approximately 4800 community groups and individuals also made submissions.

Normally ‘submitters’ as they are known are sent notification letters with a number that they can then look up in the Response to submissions report to see how ‘the proponent’, in this case Westconnex, has responded to their submission.

On this occasion, the Response to submissions report explicitly stated that letters had been sent – in fact, as far as People’s M4 East EIS is aware, these letters were never sent.  One of the People’s M4 EIS editors  has made a detailed complaint to the Department secretary Carolyn McNally which she has posted on her blog.

Today, we publish a second complaint from a resident John Hyde who lives near the M4 East project in Ashfield. If you have any questions for John or want advice on sending your own letter, post your comment at the bottom of this post. Continue reading

Department of Planning publishes M4EIS submissions –

Today, the NSW Department of Planning and Environment published the submissions for the WestCONnex M4 East.

Normally the Department publishes the name of the person who has sent in the submission with an accompanying PDF. Here’s an example from the Northconnex.

If you took a quick look at the Planning Department’s M4 East page, you could mistakenly think there were only 60 public submissions. In fact there are 4877 public submissions dumped into 60 unlabelled PDFS. The vast majority of submissions ‘object’ to to the project. Even those who only ‘comment’ rather than ‘object’ are mostly very critical of the M4 East proposal.

Unless a member of the public trawls through all submissions, he or she won’t easily find their own submission or submissions from the National Trust, the Westconnex Action Group, the No Westconnex Public Transport group and other detailed submissions from groups and experts. If the department is not equipped to deal with thousands of submission, why can’t it slow down the planning process? It is quite unfair for the documentation of public feedback for one planning application to be treated less transparently that others.

The Department’s approach to the publication of public submissions demonstrates their arrogance towards the community and how the planning process is biased and corrupted in favour of the proponent – RMS and Sydney Motorway Corporation.  It’s the same overall undemocratic approach which leads the government to grant construction contracts before the project is approved or a business case is made public.

The Department has claimed in writing that it will rigorously assess all submissions. Do they wonder why the community is cynical about their claims?

The People’s EIS will be going through the submissions and publishing some of them.

In future updates, we’ll report on the 17 Submissions from Agencies and Government Departments. There are hundreds of criticisms of the project in these submissions.

Update: The People’s EIS has complained about the way in which the public submissions have been published on the Department of Planning website. Senior Planner Brent Devine who is managing the process said it was because it had to be done as quickly as possible which simply confirms that the planning process is being rushed to suit the WestCONnex. He is going to look into whether an index with names and suburbs of submitters can be published. We expect to hear back in a day or two.

 

Your guide to the M4 East EIS documentation

The M4 East EIS is divided Volumes 1 and 2.

Volume 1 is the executive summary.

Volume2 contain all of the many appendices that contain all the details. The appendices are distributed through Volumes 2A through 2H.

Volume 1A

1 Introduction
2 Assessment process
3 Strategic context and project need
4 Project development and alternatives
5 Project description
6 Construction work
7 Consultation
8 Traffic and transport
9 Air quality
10 Noise and vibration
11 Human health

Volume 1B

12 Property and land use
13 Urban design and visual amenity
14 Social and economic
15 Soil and water quality
16 Contamination
17 Flooding and drainage
18 Groundwater
19 Non-Aboriginal heritage
20 Biodiversity
21 Greenhouse gas
22 Aboriginal heritage
23 Resource use and waste minimisation
24 Climate change risk and adaptation
25 Hazards and risk
26 Cumulative impacts
27 Sustainability
28 Environmental risk analysis
29 Summary of environmental management measures
30 Project justification and conclusion

Volume 2A

Appendix A – Secretary’s environmental assessment requirements
Appendix B – Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000 (NSW) checklist
Appendix C – concept design drawings
Appendix D – Properties affected by acquisition
Appendix E – Government agency submissions
Appendix F – Community consultation framework
Appendix G – Traffic and transport assessment

Volume 2B

Appendix H – Air quality impact assessment

Volume 2C

Appendix I – Noise and vibration impact assessment

Volume 2D

Appendix J – Human health risk assessment
Appendix K – Shadow diagrams
Appendix L – Urban design, landscape character and visual impact assessment

Volume 2E

Appendix M – Social impact assessment
Appendix N – Economic impact assessment
Appendix O – Soil and water assessment

Volume 2F

Appendix P – Soil and land contamination assessment

Volume 2G

Appendix Q – Surface water: flooding and drainage
Appendix R – Groundwater impact assessment

Volume 2H

Appendix S – Non aboriginal heritage impact assessment
Appendix T – Biodiversity impact assessment
Appendix U – Detailed greenhouse gas calculations
Appendix V – Aboriginal heritage assessment
Appendix W – Climate change risk assessment framework

Main Volume 1A Part 1

Main Volume 1A Part 1 (pdf)

Contents Pages
Executive summary
Certification
Glossary and abbreviations
1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Project overview 1-1
1.2 Project location 1-4
1.3 Project features 1-4
1.4 Benefits of the project 1-7
1.5 Purpose of this environmental impact statement 1-8
1.6 Structure of this environmental impact statement 1-8
1.7 Directions used in this environmental impact statement 1-9
2 Assessment process 2-1
2.1 Approval framework 2-1
2.1.1 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 2-1
2.1.2 Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000 2-1
2.2 Environmental planning instruments 2-3
2.2.1 State environmental planning policies 2-3
2.2.2 Local environmental plans 2-3
2.3 Other legislation 2-4
2.3.1 NSW legislation 2-4
2.3.2 Commonwealth legislation 2-5
3 Strategic context and project need 3-1
3.1 Strategic planning and policy framework 3-1
3.1.1 NSW 2021: A Plan to Make NSW Number One 3-1
3.1.2 State Infrastructure Strategy 3-2
3.1.3 NSW Long Term Transport Master Plan 3-3
3.1.4 Mode specific transport strategies 3-4
3.1.5 A Plan for Growing Sydney 3-6
3.1.6 NSW Freight and Ports Strategy 3-8
3.1.7 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 3-8
3.1.8 WestConnex Business Case 3-9
3.1.9 Our Cities Our Future – A National Urban Policy 3-10
3.1.10 Alignment with other national strategic planning documents 3-11
3.2 Why the project is needed 3-11
3.2.1 Regional context 3-11
3.2.2 Existing road network conditions 3-12
3.2.3 Job creation in Western Sydney 3-13
3.2.4 Freight, commercial and business services 3-14
3.2.5 Parramatta Road urban renewal 3-15
3.2.6 Transport improvements in the Parramatta Road corridor 3-15
3.3 Project objectives 3-16
3.4 Summary 3-17
4 Project development and alternatives 4-1
4.1 History of the M4 East and WestConnex 4-1
4.1.2 M5 East Motorway 4-3
4.1.3 Connection between the M4 and M5 East 4-3
4.1.4 WestConnex and M4 East 4-3
4.2 Strategic alternatives 4-4
4.2.1 Alternative 1 – Base case or ‘do nothing/do minimum’ 4-5
4.2.2 Alternative 2 – Improvements to the existing arterial road network 4-5
4.2.3 Alternative 3 – Investment in public transport and rail freight improvements 4-7
4.2.4 Alternative 4 – Demand management 4-10
4.2.5 Alternative 5 – Extension of the M4 as part of the WestConnex scheme 4-10
4.2.6 Preferred strategic alternative 4-11
4.3 Motorway options 4-12
4.3.1 Earlier options development 4-12
4.3.2 Tunnel corridor options 4-15
4.3.3 Number of lanes within tunnels 4-15
4.3.4 Preferred motorway option 4-16
4.4 Interchange options 4-16
4.4.1 Western tunnel portals 4-16
4.4.2 M4 westbound access options 4-19
4.4.3 Concord interchange 4-20
4.4.4 Wattle Street (City West Link) interchange 4-23
4.4.5 Parramatta Road interchange 4-25
4.5 Design development of ancillary facilities 4-27
4.5.1 Ventilation system design 4-27
4.5.2 Ventilation facility locations 4-29
4.5.3 Emergency smoke exhaust facility 4-31
4.5.4 Fresh air supply facility 4-31
4.5.5 Motorway control centre 4-32
4.6 Construction methodology development 4-33
4.6.1 Tunnel construction methods 4-33
4.6.2 Spoil disposal 4-34
5 Project description 5-1
5.1 The project 5-2
5.2 Design criteria 5-5
5.2.1 Design standards 5-5
5.2.2 Urban design principles and objectives 5-5
5.2.3 Landscape framework 5-6
5.3 Project footprint 5-6
5.4 Tunnels (continues in part 2) 5-7

Main Volume 1A Part 2

Main Volume 1A Part 2 (pdf)

Contents Pages
5.4 Tunnels (continued from part 1) 5-14
5.5 Road treatments at intersections and interchanges 5-20
5.5.1 Homebush Bay Drive interchange 5-20
5.5.2 Powells Creek M4 on-ramp 5-22
5.5.3 Concord Road interchange 5-22
5.5.4 Wattle Street (City West Link) interchange 5-25
5.5.5 Parramatta Road interchange 5-29
5.6 Ventilation system 5-31
5.6.1 Overview 5-31
5.6.2 Ventilation facilities 5-31
5.6.3 Operating modes 5-35
5.7 Other ancillary facilities 5-36
5.7.1 Motorway operations complex 5-36
5.7.2 Incident response centre 5-38
5.7.3 Emergency and incident management facilities 5-38
5.8 Other project elements 5-40
5.8.1 Bridges 5-40
5.8.2 Cuttings and embankments 5-43
5.8.3 Drainage and operational water quality 5-43
5.8.4 Lighting, roadside furniture and signage 5-45
5.8.5 Tolling gantries, communication and control systems 5-46
5.8.6 Noise barriers and low noise pavement 5-46
5.8.7 Provision for smart motorway infrastructure 5-51
5.9 Surface road network changes 5-51
5.9.1 Changes to the existing road network 5-51
5.9.2 Pedestrian and cyclist facilities 5-52
5.9.3 Public transport (continues in part 3) 5-53

Main Volume 1A Part 3

Main Volume 1A Part 3 (pdf)

Contents Pages
5.9.3 Public transport (continued from part 2) 5-54
5.10 Utility services 5-55
5.10.1 Electricity 5-55
5.10.2 Water 5-56
5.11 Property access and acquisition 5-57
6 Construction work 6-1
6.1 Construction strategy 6-2
6.2 Construction program 6-2
6.3 Construction footprint 6-3
6.4 Construction methodology 6-12
6.4.1 Enabling works 6-13
6.4.2 Tunnelling 6-13
6.4.3 Surface earthworks and structures 6-14
6.4.4 Bridge works 6-15
6.4.5 Drainage 6-16
6.4.6 Pavement 6-17
6.4.7 Operational ancillary facilities 6-17

Main Volume 1A Part 4

Main Volume 1A Part 4 (pdf)

Contents Pages
6.5 Construction ancillary facilities 6-19
6.5.1 Overview 6-19
6.5.2 Homebush Bay Drive civil site (C1) 6-21
6.5.3 Pomeroy Street civil site (C2) 6-22
6.5.4 Underwood Road civil and tunnel site (C3) 6-25
6.5.5 Powells Creek civil site (C4) 6-27
6.5.6 Concord Road civil and tunnel site (C5) 6-29
6.5.7 Cintra Park tunnel site (C6) 6-31
6.5.8 Northcote Street tunnel site (C7) 6-34
6.5.9 Eastern ventilation facility site (C8) 6-36
6.5.10 Wattle Street and Walker Avenue civil site (C9) 6-38
6.5.11 Parramatta Road civil site (C10) 6-40
6.6 Traffic management and access 6-42
6.6.1 Changes to local roads 6-42
6.6.2 Changes to pedestrian and cycle routes 6-44
6.6.3 Changes to bus stops 6-47
6.6.4 Access routes and vehicle numbers 6-47
6.6.5 Construction workforce parking 6-48
6.7 Construction workforce numbers and work hours 6-50
6.7.1 Construction workforce 6-50
6.7.2 Construction work hours 6-51
6.8 Plant and equipment 6-53
6.9 Spoil and waste management 6-55
6.9.1 Spoil and waste generation 6-55
6.9.2 Spoil disposal hierarchy 6-56
6.9.3 Spoil reuse and disposal sites 6-56
6.9.4 Spoil haulage routes 6-57
6.9.5 Spoil management strategy 6-62
6.10 Construction resource use 6-63
6.10.1 Construction materials 6-63
6.10.2 Construction energy use 6-63
6.10.3 Construction water use and management 6-64

Main Volume 1A Part 5

Main Volume 1A Part 5 (pdf)

Contents Pages
7.1 Community and stakeholder engagement overview 7-2
7.2 Consultation objectives 7-3
7.3 Consultation process and activities to date 7-3
7.3.1 Consultation undertaken before preparation of the EIS 7-3
7.3.2 Consultation undertaken during preparation of the EIS 7-4
7.3.3 Aboriginal cultural heritage consultation 7-16
7.4 Summary of issues raised 7-16
7.4.1 Issues raised by government agencies 7-16
7.4.2 Issues raised by local government 7-23
7.4.3 Issues raised by the community 7-32
7.5 Design considerations in response to early feedback 7-38
7.6 Future consultation 7-54
7.6.1 Subsurface acquisition consultation 7-54
7.6.2 Consultation during the exhibition of the EIS 7-54
7.6.3 Consultation during construction stages 7-55
8 Traffic and transport 8-1
8.1 Assessment methodology 8-2
8.1.1 Determine existing and future traffic volumes 8-2
8.1.2 Assess construction impacts 8-2
8.1.3 Assess operational impacts 8-3
8.2 Existing environment 8-3
8.2.1 Route description 8-3
8.2.2 Traffic volumes and patterns 8-6
8.2.3 Existing road network performance 8-9
8.2.4 Public and active transport 8-12
8.3 Assessment of construction impacts 8-13
8.3.1 Construction traffic volumes and routes 8-13
8.3.2 Local road network impacts 8-14
8.3.3 Road and intersection performance 8-16
8.3.4 Access changes 8-18
8.3.5 Road safety 8-18
8.3.6 Public transport 8-18
8.3.7 Pedestrians and cyclists 8-19
8.4 Assessment of operation impacts 8-19
8.4.1 Road and intersection performance 8-19
8.4.2 Public transport 8-31
8.4.3 Pedestrian and cyclist facilities 8-32
8.4.4 Fulfilment of project objectives 8-32
8.5 Assessment of cumulative impacts 8-34
8.5.1 Construction 8-34
8.5.2 Operation 8-34
8.6 Management of impacts 8-34
8.6.1 Project design features that manage impacts 8-34
8.6.2 Road network optimisation 8-35
8.6.3 Environmental management measures 8-35
9 Air quality 9-1
9.1 Introduction 9-1
9.2 Assessment approach 9-3
9.2.1 Overview 9-3
9.2.2 Terminology 9-3
9.2.3 Air quality criteria 9-4
9.2.4 NSW assessment criteria 9-6
9.2.5 Modelling scenarios 9-9
9.2.6 Accuracy and conservatism 9-11
9.2.7 Model selection and validation 9-12
9.2.8 Sensitivity tests 9-13
9.3 Construction air quality assessment methodology 9-13
9.4 Operational assessment methodology 9-15
9.4.1 In-tunnel assessment methodology 9-15
9.4.2 External air quality assessment methodology 9-16
9.5 Existing environment 9-22
9.5.1 Terrain and land use 9-22
9.5.2 Climate 9-22
9.5.3 Meteorology 9-23
9.5.4 Emissions 9-27
9.5.5 General characteristics of Sydney air quality 9-29
9.5.6 Data from existing monitoring sites in the study area 9-33
9.5.7 Project-specific monitoring 9-34
9.6 Assessment of air quality impacts during construction 9-35
9.6.1 Significance of risks 9-35
9.7 Assessment of air quality impacts during operation 9-35
9.7.1 In-tunnel air quality 9-35
9.7.2 Assessment of ambient air quality impacts 9-44
9.7.3 Carbon monoxide (maximum rolling eight-hour mean) 9-47
9.7.4 Nitrogen dioxide (annual mean) 9-49
9.7.5 PM10 (annual mean) 9-56
9.7.6 PM10 (maximum 24-hour mean) 9-62
9.7.7 PM2.5 (annual mean) 9-68
9.7.8 Air toxics 9-70
9.8 Assessment of cumulative impacts 9-72
9.8.1 Results for expected traffic scenarios 9-72
9.9 Management of impacts 9-77
9.9.1 Construction impacts 9-77
9.9.2 Operational impacts 9-81
9.9.3 Monitoring of external air quality 9-84
10 Noise and vibration 10-1
10.1 Assessment methodology 10-1
10.1.1 Study area 10-2
10.1.2 Noise sensitive receivers (continues in part 6) 10-2

Main Volume 1A Part 6

Main Volume 1A Part 6 (pdf)

Contents Pages
10.1.2 Noise sensitive receivers (continued from part 5) 10-3
10.1.3 Background noise monitoring 10-5
10.1.4 Policy framework 10-5
10.1.5 Noise modelling 10-6
10.2 Existing environment 10-7
10.3 Assessment criteria 10-9
10.3.1 Construction noise 10-9
10.3.2 Construction vibration 10-12
10.3.3 Operational noise 10-15
10.4 Assessment of construction impacts 10-20
10.4.1 Construction activity noise 10-20
10.4.2 Ground-borne noise 10-32
10.4.3 Construction traffic noise 10-33
10.4.4 Construction vibration 10-34
10.4.5 Blasting 10-35
10.5 Assessment of operational impacts 10-36
10.5.1 Road traffic noise assessment 10-36
10.5.2 Operational ancillary facilities 10-42
10.6 Assessment of cumulative impacts 10-43
10.6.1 Construction 10-43
10.6.2 Operation 10-43
10.7 Management of impacts 10-43
10.7.1 Project design features that manage impacts 10-43
10.7.2 Environmental management measures 10-43
11 Human health 11-1
11.1 Assessment methodology 11-1
11.1.1 Method of assessment 11-1
11.1.2 Study area 11-2
11.1.3 Field survey and analysis 11-3
11.2 Existing environment 11-3
11.2.1 Population profile 11-3
11.2.2 Existing health of population 11-6
11.2.3 Existing air quality 11-6
11.2.4 Existing noise and vibration 11-6
11.3 Assessment of construction impacts 11-7
11.3.1 Air quality 11-7
11.3.2 Noise and vibration 11-7
11.4 Assessment of operational impacts 11-8
11.4.1 Air quality 11-8
11.4.2 Assessment of regulatory worst case scenarios 11-16
11.4.3 Assessment of in-tunnel air quality impacts 11-19
11.4.4 Noise and vibration 11-23
11.5 Assessment of social impacts on health 11-24
11.6 Changes in noise 11-26
11.7 Changes in community 11-27
11.8 Assessment of cumulative impacts 11-28
11.9 Management of impacts 11-28
12 Property and land use 12-1
12.1 Assessment methodology 12-1
12.1.1 Overview 12-1
12.1.2 Residual land assessment criteria 12-2
12.2 Existing environment 12-2
12.2.1 Regional context 12-2
12.2.2 Local context 12-3
12.2.3 Potential future development 12-13
12.3 Assessment of construction impacts 12-14
12.3.1 Property and land use impacts 12-14
12.3.2 Property access impacts 12-33
12.3.3 Impacts on Crown land 12-33
12.4 Assessment of operational impacts 12-34
12.4.1 Property impacts 12-34
12.4.2 Land use impacts 12-34
12.4.3 Overshadowing 12-37
12.5 Management of impacts 12-38
13 Urban design and visual amenity 13-1
13.1 Assessment methodology 13-2
13.2 Existing environment 13-2
13.2.1 General landscape and visual character 13-2
13.2.2 Landscape character zones 13-3
13.2.3 Representative sensitive visual receivers 13-4
13.3 Assessment of construction impacts 13-26
13.3.1 Overview 13-26
13.3.2 Impacts on sensitive receivers 13-27
13.3.3 Construction lighting impacts 13-31
13.4 Assessment of operational impacts 13-33
13.4.1 Landscape character impacts 13-33
13.4.2 Visual receivers 13-33
13.4.3 Desired future character assessment 13-42
13.4.4 Urban design assessment 13-43
13.4.5 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 13-47
13.5 Management of impacts 13-48
13.5.1 Urban design 13-48
13.5.2 Landscape character and visual amenity 13-48
14 Social and economic 14-1
14.1 Assessment methodology 14-1
14.1.1 Approach 14-2
14.1.2 Social impact assessment framework and rating 14-2
14.1.3 Economic multipliers 14-3
14.1.4 Study area 14-3
14.1.5 Community consultation 14-6
14.2 Existing environment 14-6
14.2.1 Study area existing environment 14-6
14.2.2 Precinct existing environment 14-14
14.2.3 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 14-16
14.3 Assessment of construction impacts 14-17
14.3.1 Economic stimulus – construction expenditure and employment 14-17
14.3.2 Changes in amenity 14-18
14.3.3 Changes to accessibility 14-19
14.3.4 Property and household impacts 14-20
14.3.5 Social infrastructure 14-21
14.3.6 Business impacts 14-24
14.4 Assessment of operational impacts 14-24
14.4.1 Economic stimulus – operational expenditure and employment 14-25
14.4.2 Changes in amenity 14-25
14.4.3 Freight and efficiency 14-26
14.4.4 Acquisition 14-26
14.4.5 Changes in passing trade 14-26
14.4.6 Changes to accessibility 14-26
14.4.7 Social infrastructure 14-28
14.5 Assessment of cumulative impacts 14-29
14.6 Management of impacts 14-30
14.6.1 Ongoing stakeholder engagement 14-30
14.6.2 Environmental management measures 14-30
15 Soil and water quality 15-1
15.1 Assessment methodology 15-1
15.1.1 Overview 15-1
15.1.2 Legislation and policy framework 15-2
15.1.3 Water quality monitoring 15-4
15.2 Existing environment 15-4
15.2.1 Soils 15-4
15.2.2 Waterways and riparian zones 15-6
15.2.3 Sensitive receiving environments 15-8
15.2.4 Water quality 15-8
15.3 Assessment of construction impacts 15-10
15.3.1 Construction impacts on soils 15-10
15.3.2 Construction impacts on water quality 15-11
15.4 Assessment of operational impacts 15-14
15.4.1 Operational impacts to soils 15-14
15.4.2 Operational impacts to water quality 15-14
15.5 Management of impacts 15-16
15.5.1 Project design features that manage impacts 15-17
15.5.2 Environmental management measures 15-17
16 Contamination 16-1
16.1 Assessment methodology 16-1
16.1.1 Desktop review 16-1
16.1.2 Site inspection 16-2
16.1.3 Site investigations 16-2
16.1.4 Preliminary conceptual site model 16-2
16.1.5 Study area 16-10
16.2 Assessment criteria 16-10
16.3 Existing environment 16-11
16.3.1 Section 1: West of Homebush Bay Drive to Pomeroy Street 16-11
16.3.2 Section 2: Pomeroy Street to Ismay Avenue 16-13
16.3.3 Section 3: Ismay Avenue to Carrington Lane 16-13
16.3.4 Section 4: Carrington Lane to Broughton Street 16-15
16.3.5 Section 5: Broughton Street to Dobroyd Canal (Iron Cove Creek) 16-16
16.3.6 Section 6: Dobroyd Canal (Iron Cove Creek) to Bland Street (including Wattle Street) 16-18
16.3.7 Section 7: Bland Street to Orpington Street 16-19
16.4 Assessment of construction impacts 16-20
16.4.1 Potential contamination pathways 16-20
16.4.2 Acid sulfate soil impacts 16-23
16.4.3 Contamination resulting from the project 16-23
16.5 Assessment of operational impacts 16-23
16.6 Management of impacts 16-24
17 Flooding and drainage 17-1
17.1 Assessment methodology 17-1
17.1.1 Methodology overview 17-1
17.1.2 Policy and guidance 17-2
17.1.3 Study area and analysis 17-2
17.2 Existing environment 17-3
17.2.1 Catchment descriptions 17-3
17.2.2 Environmental conditions 17-8
17.2.3 Present day flooding conditions 17-8
17.3 Assessment of construction impacts 17-10
17.3.1 Flood risk to the project 17-10
17.3.2 Potential impacts of construction activities on flooding behaviour 17-13
17.4 Assessment of operational impacts 17-17
17.4.1 Flood risk to the project and impact on flooding behaviour 17-17
17.4.2 Potential impacts of future climate change 17-22
17.5 Management of impacts 17-23
17.5.1 Project design features that manage impacts 17-23
17.5.2 Environmental management measures 17-24
18 Groundwater 18-1
18.1 Assessment methodology 18-1
18.1.1 Overview 18-1
18.1.2 Ground and surface water monitoring 18-3
18.1.3 Policy framework 18-3
18.2 Existing environment 18-5
18.2.1 Drainage, topography and geology 18-5
18.2.2 Groundwater levels and movement 18-6
18.2.3 Groundwater quality 18-9
18.2.4 Groundwater dependent ecosystems 18-11
18.2.5 Groundwater users 18-11
18.3 Assessment of construction impacts 18-11
18.3.1 Groundwater inflow rates and recharge 18-11
18.3.2 Impact on groundwater quality and contamination 18-14
18.3.3 Ground movement 18-15
18.4 Assessment of operational impacts 18-16
18.4.1 Groundwater drawdown 18-16
18.4.2 Groundwater recharge change 18-20
18.4.3 Groundwater inflow rates and chemistry 18-20
18.4.4 Potential impact on groundwater dependent ecosystems 18-21
18.4.5 Impacts on other groundwater users 18-22
18.4.6 Impact on groundwater quality and contamination 18-22
18.4.7 Potential for acid sulfate soil drainage 18-23
18.4.8 Groundwater management, treatment and discharge 18-23
18.4.9 Summary of impacts having regard to the Aquifer Interference Policy 18-23
18.5 Management of impacts 18-25
18.5.1 Project design features that manage impacts 18-25
18.5.2 Environmental management measures 18-26
19 Non-Aboriginal heritage 19-1
19.1 Assessment methodology 19-1
19.1.1 Overview 19-1
19.1.2 Legislation and policy framework 19-2
19.1.3 Study area 19-2
19.1.4 Assessment of historical archaeological resources 19-3
19.1.5 Assessment of heritage impacts 19-11
19.2 Existing environment 19-12
19.2.1 Historical archaeology 19-12
19.2.2 Heritage items and conservation areas 19-18
19.3 Assessment of impacts 19-30
19.3.1 Historical archaeology 19-30
19.3.2 Heritage items and conservation areas 19-32
19.4 Management of impacts 19-43
20 Biodiversity 20-1
20.1 Assessment methodology 20-2
20.1.1 Overview 20-2
20.1.2 Desktop assessment 20-2
20.1.3 Likelihood of occurrence assessment 20-3
20.1.4 Field surveys 20-3
20.1.5 Legislation and policy framework 20-4
20.2 Existing environment 20-5
20.2.1 Vegetation communities 20-5
20.2.2 Flora species and populations 20-6
20.2.3 Fauna species and populations 20-12
20.2.4 Migratory species 20-13
20.3 Assessment of construction impacts 20-14
20.3.1 Direct impacts 20-14
20.3.2 Indirect impacts 20-17
20.4 Assessment of operational impacts 20-19
20.5 Assessment of cumulative impacts 20-20
20.6 Management of impacts 20-20
20.6.1 Biodiversity offsets 20-22
21 Greenhouse gas 21-1
21.1 Assessment methodology 21-1
21.1.1 Greenhouse gas assessment boundary 21-2
21.2 Existing environment 21-3
21.2.1 Policy setting 21-3
21.2.2 GHG emissions reporting 21-3
21.3 Assessment of construction impacts 21-4
21.4 Assessment of operational impacts 21-5
21.4.1 Emissions from road infrastructure operation 21-6
21.4.2 Emissions from vehicles during operation 21-6
21.5 Combined GHG emissions 21-7
21.6 Management of impacts 21-9
22 Aboriginal heritage 22-1
22.1 Assessment methodology 22-1
22.1.1 Overview 22-1
22.1.2 Legislation and policy framework 22-2
22.2 Study area 22-3
22.3 Existing environment 22-3
22.3.1 Landscape context 22-3
22.3.2 Ethnographic and archaeological context 22-3
22.3.3 Site predictions 22-4
22.3.4 Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System 22-4
22.3.5 Survey results 22-4
22.4 Assessment of potential impacts 22-6
22.5 Environmental management measures 22-6
23 Resource use and waste minimisation 23-1
23.1 Assessment methodology 23-1
23.2 Legislative framework 23-1
23.3 Assessment of construction impacts 23-2
23.3.1 Construction resource consumption 23-2
23.3.2 Construction waste management 23-3
23.4 Assessment of operational impacts 23-6
23.4.1 Operational resource consumption 23-6
23.4.2 Operational waste management 23-6
23.5 Environmental management measures 23-7
24 Climate change risk and adaptation 24-1
24.1 Assessment methodology 24-1
24.1.1 Pre-screening 24-2
24.1.2 Screening 24-2
24.1.3 Detailed risk assessment 24-2
24.1.4 Risk evaluation 24-3
24.1.5 Adaptation (risk treatment) 24-3
24.2 Existing environment 24-3
24.2.1 Future climate 24-4
24.3 Assessment of construction impacts 24-6
24.4 Assessment of operational impacts 24-6
24.4.1 Risk evaluation 24-6
24.5 Management of impacts 24-7
25 Hazards and risk 25-1
25.1 Assessment of construction risks 25-1
25.1.1 Storage and handling of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-1
25.1.2 Transport of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-2
25.1.3 Underground services 25-3
25.1.4 Risk of tunnel collapse 25-3
25.2 Assessment of operational risks 25-3
25.2.1 Storage and handling of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-4
25.2.2 Transport of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-4
25.2.3 Incidents in the tunnels 25-5
25.2.4 Incidents on surface roads 25-6
25.3 Environmental management measures 25-6
26 Cumulative impacts 26-1
26.1 Nature of cumulative impacts 26-1
26.2 Assessment methodology 26-2
26.3 Existing environment 26-2
26.3.1 WestConnex 26-2
26.3.2 Other nearby developments 26-4
26.4 Cumulative impacts of WestConnex component projects 26-7
26.4.1 Traffic and transport 26-7
26.4.2 Air quality 26-8
26.4.3 Noise and vibration 26-8
26.4.4 Economic impacts 26-9
26.4.5 Social impacts 26-10
26.4.6 Non-Aboriginal heritage 26-10
26.4.7 Biodiversity 26-10
26.5 Cumulative impacts of other nearby developments 26-10
26.5.1 Traffic and transport 26-11
26.5.2 Amenity impacts 26-11
26.6 Management of impacts 26-12
27 Sustainability 27-1
27.1 What is sustainability? 27-1
27.2 WestConnex Sustainability Strategy 27-1
27.3 Sustainability management measures 27-2
27.4 Ecologically sustainable development 27-10
27.4.1 Precautionary principle 27-10
27.4.2 Inter-generational equity 27-10
27.4.3 Conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity 27-11
27.4.4 Improved valuation and pricing and incentive mechanisms 27-11
28 Environmental risk analysis 28-1
28.1 Overview 28-1
28.2 Preliminary environmental assessment 28-2
28.3 Assessment of key issues identified in the Secretary’s environmental assessment requirements 28-2
28.4 Risk analysis summary 28-3
29 Summary of environmental management measures 29-1
29.1 Environmental management plans (or systems) 29-1
29.2 Summary of safeguards and management measures 29-1
30 Project justification and conclusion 30-1
30.1 Justification 30-1
30.1.1 Summary of strategic need and justification 30-1
30.1.2 Achieving project objectives 30-2
30.2 Objectives of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act (1979) 30-4
30.3 Conclusion 30-6