M4 East EIS Volume 2B App H Part 9 Air Quality

M4 East EIS Volume 2B App H Part 9 Air Quality (pdf)

Contents Pages
Appendix K: All results of dispersion modelling (continued from part 8) K
Appendix L: Ventilation report L
1 Introduction L.6
2 Scope L.7
3 Ventilation schemes L.8
3.1 M4 East layout L.8
3.2 M4-M5 Link layout L.8
3.3 Fire ventilation L.11
4 Pollution criteria L.12
4.1 In-tunnel air quality L.12
4.2 Interaction of traffic and pollution limits L.13
4.3 Design traffic L.15
4.3.1 Normal traffic L.15
4.3.2 Congested traffic (also called capacity traffic) L.15
4.3.3 Breakdown scenario L.15
5 Alignment L.16
6 Cross section L.19
7 Traffic L.19
7.1 Vehicle classification L.19
7.1.1 M4 fixed network vehicle counts L.22
7.1.2 M4 weigh-in-motion data L.24
7.1.3 PIARC expectation L.25
7.1.4 Air-shed studies L.26
7.1.5 Conclusion on vehicle type split L.26
7.2 Size of vehicles L.28
7.3 Vehicle age L.29
7.4 Fuel mix L.29
7.5 Traffic flow for the M4 East L.29
7.6 Ramp splits for M4 East L.34
8 Vehicle-induced air flows L.35
8.1 Piston effect L.35
8.2 Vehicle drag L.35
9 Emission factors L.38
9.1 Variation of emission factors with time. L.38
9.2 CO emissions L.38
9.3 NO2 emissions L.40
9.4 Particulate matter L.44
9.5 Heat emissions and tunnel air temperature. L.47
10 Simulation software L.52
11 Simulation results L.53
11.1 Free flowing traffic L.53
11.2 Congested traffic L.58
APPENDIX A – M4 East simulation results L.68
APPENDIX B – M4 to Rozelle simulation results L.77

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